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Composite Anthropomorphic figure from Haryana: 
A solitary example of copper hoard* 


S. K. Manjul and Arvin Manjul 


An interesting copper anthropomorphic figure (PI. 6) 
along with antenna sword of copper (PI. 11) has 
recently been taken over by the Central Antiquity 
Section of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), 
which was acquired by the Central Bureau of 
Investigation from Sabdar Ali of village Kheri Gujar, 
Tehsil Gannur, Dist. Sonepat, Haryana. The object 
has been declared antiquity by the National Review 
Committee of ASI. Now the object is kept in CAC 
Section, Purana Qila, New Delhi. 

To explore the finding area of both the important 
objects the authors have visited the village Kheri 
Gujjar located on the dried bed of river Yamuna, 
about 8 km from Samalkhan and 6 km from Gannaur 
(Delhi-Chandigarh high way), District Sonipat, 
Haryana (Pis. 15-16). Authors also visited the house 
of Sabdar Ali where the copper objects said to be 
recovered from foundation of a house. 

The house of Sabdar Ali is built on the Ancient 
mound called Kheri and Satkumbha. During the 
exploration on the mound we have collected few 
potsherds of Late Harappan and Vardhana or 
Pratihara period present in the various exposed 
sections of the mound. The mound is spread in an 
area of about 1 km. Its height is approximately 14- 
15 m from the present ground level. Potteries, 
architectural fragments and bricks are spread all over 
the mound. 

A Siva temple of medieval period is on the top of 
the mound, where four beautifully carved pillar 


members, broken sculptures of Pratihara period and 
some wooden architectural members of late medieval 
period are lying uncared. 

Red ware shards of Harappan, Kushana and post 
Gupta period were collected from the site. The 
description of the potsherds of Harappan tradition is 
as follows: 

1. Fragment of a shallow bowl of red ware having 
horizontally splayed out rim and remains of 
straight sides also visible, of medium fabric, it 
is treated with red colour wash on the interior. 

2. Fragment of the rim portion of red ware having 
slightly incurved sharpen rim, of dull fabric, it 
is devoid of any treatment. 

3. Fragment of bowl of red ware with vertical 
rounded rim, medium fabric, devoid of any slip 
or wash, shows presence of mica. 

4. Fragment of red ware pot, probably of the belly 
portion of a vase, showing carination at bally. 
Of medium fabric, it is treated with red slip on 
the exterior and has three bands painted in 
black on it. It also shows the use of mica. 

5. Fragment of red ware pot. Of medium fabric, it 
is treated with red slip on exterior and has 
multiple circular banding in black on it. 

6. Fragment of red ware pot. Of medium to dull 
fabric it has three perforations on it and remains 
of nine perforation are also visible. 


' Paper received on 1 March 2007 : Revised on 21 March 2007 






m*m, 37^- - 9tP 


The aforesaid copper anthropomorphic figure and 
Antenna sword which were recovered from the same 
mound show close affinities with Harappan culture. 
The anthropomorphic figure comprises many 
characteristics associated with the Harappan 
artefacts, such as composite figure of animal with 
human, depiction of unicorn like animal and a ten 
letters inscription similar to Harappan script as well 
as to the early Brahmi characters. 

Anthropomorphic figure 

Features and Measurement : It is a composite figure 
representing animal and human elements (PI. 7). The 
right profile of the head is like a boar, having a V 
shaped cut on the forehead and projected snout. The 
eye and eyelids are very prominently marked with a 
dot and circle in relief. Remaining part of the figure 
resembles human body with broad shoulders and 
narrow waist. Both arms are incurved in coil fashion 
without any sharp edges (PI. 10). The legs are rather 
straight (Fig. 1 & 2). 



Fig. 1 Line Drawing of copper anthropomorphic 
Figure. 

The weight of this object is approximately 2 kg. The 
dimensions are 30 x 28.5 cm (including arms) and 
maximum thickness is 1.5 cm. It is significant to note 
that the length and breadth (28 x 28.5) of the figure 
is almost similar especially when we take the 



Fig. 2 Composite figure (head of Animal and 
human) 

measurement from presumed human head excluding 
boar head (fig 2). 

Technique of Manufacturing : This copper figure was 
first cast in a mould then beating technique was 
applied at some places for giving the required shape. 
The excess metal was cut off during the process. 
These cutting marks are visible at neck curve, inner 
side of arms and angle of the legs. 

Distinction: So far ninety Anthropomorphs have been 
reported from localities of different states but this 
figure is different and unique. It appears to be a 
solitary example of its kind in the entire Copper Hoard 
assemblage. 

Three distinct characteristics of this artefact are as 
follow: (i) Composite figure, Human (Nar) + Animal 
(Varah), (ii) Animal depiction, and (iii) Inscription (Fig. 
1, PI. 9). 

(i) The first striking feature is its shape. It is a 
composite figure of human and animal. The 
head is of boar and the rest of the body 
represents human form. It is important to note 
that for the first time an anthropomorphic figure 
is found in a composite form very much similar 
to the Nri-Varah. This peculiar representation 


18 








Pragdhara, No. 17 



differentiates it with other anthropomorphic 
figures. However it resembles with the usual 
anthropomorphic figure of the Copper Hoard 
assemblages. 

The origin of Varah worship can be traced back 
to the period when Indian mythology was still 'in 
its making', when people saw divinity in the 
varied forces of nature. Prof. Gonda and U.P. 
Shah 2 suggested that the Varah worship must 
have existed in the Vedic or even the pre-Vedic 
period. 

In the Rig-Veda several gods are equated with 
the boar 3 . The Maruts are called the 'iron tusked 
boars', and also the 'wild boars' 4 . Rudra is 
addressed as the boar of the sky 5 . The boar in 
the form of demon Vrtra, plays a significant role 
in the Vedic mythology 6 which laid the 
foundation of the whole of the Varaha myth in 
the later period. Vrtra in the Vedas is the 
personification of the clouds 7 . The same idea is 
implied by a hymn of the Atharva-veda 8 . In the 
Rig-veda it is said: 'Indra, shooting across the 
cloud mountain, slew the boar Emusa' 9 . 

The extension of this myth is found in the 
Taittiriya Samhita 10 . The legend relates that the 
boar kept the wealth of the Asuras concealed 
behind the seven hills. Indra picks up a blade 


of kusa grass and piercing the hills, slew the 
boar. Thus the gods acquired the riches of the 
Asuras. A parallel legend appears in the 
Kapisthala Katha Samhita u . Thus, Varah or 
Emusa Varaha means the one who caries off the 
riches or treasures, therefore, the earth - the 
embodiment of the riches. This very character 
is reflected in the words of Matsya Puran 12 
where Varah is likened to the manisrnga, the 
cornucopia, which is considered to be a nidhi. 

In the Brahmanical literature, the relation of 
Varah with the earth is fully established. It 
deserves to be noted that Varah is one of the 
forms of Prajapati in its initial stages. The boar 
becomes a personified form of the great deity 
Prajapati. The Kapisthala Katha Samhita 13 refers 
to the following legend concerning the origin of 
the cosmos. "In the beginning there were 
primeval waters - once Lord Prajapati, taking the 
form of a boar entered it (Plunged into it) and 
he brought up (on the surface) the soil exactly 
of the size of his snout. That soil became this 
very earth 1 '. A similar legend appears in the 
Taittiriya Samhita 14 . Emusa Varah is stated to 
have risen up the earth from the waters 
mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana 15 . His 
connection with Vishnu, whose important 
incarnation he became in the later period, is 
completely unknown at this stage. 

According to Dr. V.S. Agrawal 16 , Agni and Surya 
are the names of Varah, the description of Varah 
as ‘Chayapatni Sahayo' goes to prove the same 
fact. Chaya evidently is the consort of Surya, but 
here according to some Puranas 17 she 
accompanies Varah. It shows that the original 
solar character of Varah has been retained. In 
the Mahabharata 18 , Varah has incorporated in 
the avatar cycle of Vishnu. The Visnudharmottar 
Purana 19 describes various forms of Varah. 

The so far known earliest image of Nri-Varah is 
of Kushana period, which is preserved in the 
Mathura Museum 20 . The representation of Nri- 


19 




wmr, w - w 



Fig. 4 Flat Axe, Kanpur, U.P. 

Varah datable to early Gupta period is carved 
on the facade of the cave no. 4 at Udaygiri, near 
Bhilsa, Madhya Pradesh 21 . The anthropomorph 
under study is the sole example of association 
of Varah with copper hoard material. It seems 
that this is the period when iconographical 
principals for this type of image were in 
formative stage. 

Anthropomorphic figures found at different 
places show remarkable variations in regard to 
size, shape and weight. But semi-circular head 
attached with shoulder without neck, 
descending incurved arms and straight open 
separated legs are common features shared by 
most of the them. Comparative analysis leaves 
no doubt that almost all the anthropomorphic 
figures are more or less stylised human 
representations. But there are few exceptions 
like the anthropomorphic figure found at 
Madarpur 22 . This specimen has one arm 
upraised. A bronze anthropomorphic figure 
found at Manbhum, Chhota Nagpur region, now 
in Patna museum shows a crudely made vertical 
rendition of a male figure with genital portion is 
another exception. A copper anthropomorphic 
figure found from Sheorajpur, Kanpur and now 


i 



Fig. 5 Shouldered Axe Kanpur, U.P. 

in collection of the Lucknow museum, because 
of bearing an incised horizontal fish (Matsya) in 
the center of the artifact 23 . According to the 
concept of Dashavatara - fish ( matsya ) is first 
incarnation and Varaha / Narvarah is the third 
incarnation of Vishnu. It is necessary here to 
mention that fish was an important motif, often 
used by the Harappans. The fish motif was also 
associated with goddess Lakshmi in Ancient 
Indian Art and literature. Later on fish was 
associated with goddess Varahi especially during 
the 8 th -10 th centuries A.D. 

It is also significant to mention here that a 
copper flat axe having clock wise swastika 
symbol engraved with numerous small dot marks 
and a shouldered axe display a figure of 
standing humped bull facing right and having a 
pair of horizontally expanding horns and long 
drooping tail (Fig. 4 & 5). Krishna Kumar" has 
noticed these artefacts in the collection of a 
private collector at Kanpur. The Calcutta circle 
of ASI acquired seven copper hoard objects 
found during the digging of murum at v,;:age 
Khajaveri, district Midinapur, West Benga. 
amongst them six are shouldered celts and ere 
is humped bull (which is also a sofiitai-> 
example) 25 . 


20 











Pragdhara, No. 17 


The Swastika symbol also occurs on the OCP 
from Lai Qila (Uttar Pradesh) and PGW shards 
at various places 26 and the bull motif commonly 
occurs on the pre-Harappan painted potteries 
from Kulli, Mehi (Balluchistan) and Amri (Sind in 
Pakistan) and on famous Harappan seals 27 . It has 
also been noticed on an OCP vase discovered 
at Lai Qila (U.P.) 28 . Numerous terracotta bull 
figurines have been discovered at number of pre- 
Harappan, Harappan and post-Harappan, 
Chalcolithic and OCP sites in Indo-Pak sub- 
continent . In Rig-Veda, a bull has been 
identified with father of sky (Dyaus Pitah), the 
oldest god of heaven who fertilises mother earth 
(Prithivi-mata) with rain showers 30 . 

> The second interesting feature is the 
representation of an animal in the centre of the 
figure. It is a male animal figure; very much 
similar to the unicorn, most common motif on 
Harappan seals. This figure is depicted with 
two-pointed horns; slightly open pointed mouth, 
long neck, full body covered with a triangular 
adornment (cloth?) or it is a V shaped skin fold 
and a long tufted tail (PI. 8 & Fig. 3). It is 
significant that typical Harappan seals show two 
types of unicorn heads, one with a single horn 
and the other with two horns. 'V' shaped skin 
fold and a pointed slightly open mouth are also 
noticeable in the Unicorn figure. Two soapstone 
seals recovered from Lothal show similar type 
of animal representation. Seal no. 1 recovered 
from phase I, SRG-I,XII-XVII; pit sealed by layer 
19; 19' 2" (989) and Seal no.2 found from phase 
III, SRG-3; J 3; 2' 0" (15264) (PI. 8) 31 . 

The depiction of composite figure can be traced 
back from Harappan period in their seals and 
painted potteries. The Anthropomorphic figure 
under discussion reflects traditional affinities and 
strengthen the fact of continuity with Harappans. 

»' Inscription is the most outstanding feature of this 
Anthropomorph. The characters of the letters are 
showing affinities with the Harappan script as 


well with the early Brahmi letters. The tentative 
transcription of the inscriptions as per the Brahmi 
is as follows: 


•fis? A 

1. Sa Thi Ga 

# % p® 

2. Ki Ma Jhi Tha 

|jfl (Jl; 

3. Sha (?) Da Ya 


The probable meaning of first three letters Sa Thi 
Ga is Sathig, Sethi, indicating the King or head 
of the community or authority of particular 
territory. The Ki Ma Jhi Tha may be the name 
of the said person and Sha Da Ya (Shadya) may 
be the sixth form of god or occasion when the 
figure was created. 

The first author has carried out study on stylistic 
similarities of above letters and noticed that all 
these letters are showing similarities with the 
Harappan script. Comparative chart of the script 
is given in Table -1. 

The above evidence is certainly a forward step 
towards deciphering the Harappan script. The 
continuity of the Brahmi script has also been 
noticed within the graffiti marks found on the 
black slipped potteries from Kumersingha 
excavation, Orissa in Period-IA, period-IB and 
black-and-red ware of Period-ll 32 . Similarly, 
excavation of Kurumpadar (Orissa) also revealed 
graffiti marks on burnished black ware, black- 
and-red ware of Period-1 and black-and-red 
ware and black slipware of Period-ll and plain 
red ware of Period-Ill 33 . 

Interestingly, these graffiti marks are showing 
close similarity with the letters displayed on the 
present copper anthropomorphic figure. Their 
comparative chart is given in Table - 2. 

The comparative chart of Harappan script as well 
graffiti on black slipped and black-and-red ware 
produce some affinity in regard of writing style. 


21 




wmr, ■sfa- 9is 


Table - 1 


Sr. 

No. 

Letter on 

Anthropomorph 

Letter of Harappan script 

Graffiti marks on 
Harappan potsherds 

Brahmi scripts 

1. 





2. 



& 

@ 

3. 

A 

A , A 

A A A 

) J 

A 

4. ; 


=5r 

H- + 


5. 



a © 


6. 

IP 

Y.T4 


S=° 

7. 

© 

# (§> 

#, ® 

© 

8. 


'k 

©i © 


9. 

0 s 



$ 

10. 

© 

<4/ 

4" 'i \ 



Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions, 

1. M- 123, M- 264 ; 2. M- 1 , M- 12 ; 3. M- 263, M- 276; 4. M- 331 ; 5. M- 62, M- 63, M- 66, M- 82 ; 
6. M- 179, M- 177, M- 224, M- 392 ; 7. M- 150, M- 157, ; 8. M- 170; 9. M- 88, M- 81 ; 10. M- 168 
Graffiti marks:- Kalibangan, Lothal, Rakhighari, Mohenjodaro and Harappa 


22 

























Pragdhara, No. 17 


Table - 2 


s. 

No. 

Letter on 

Anthropomorph 

Graffiti marks 

Remarks 

1. 


/ \ 

Kurumpadar, Pd.-II Black-and-red 
ware (No. 4) 

2. 

7 

? 

Kumersingha, Pd.-IB Red slipped 
ware (No. 6) 

3. 

A 

N.A 

Kurumpadar, Pd.-II Black-slipped 
ware (No. 14-15) 

4. 



Kumersingha, Pd.-IB Black-and 

Red ware (No. 10) 

Kurumpadar, Pd.-II Black-and-red 
ware (No. 10) 

5. 

¥ 


Kumersingha, Pd.-IB & II Black- 
and-Red ware (No. 9, 15 & 17) 

6. 

Cr* 



7. 


0, o 

Kumersingha, Pd.-II Black-and-Red 
ware (No. 21) 

Kurumpadar, Pd.-II Black-and-red 
ware (No. 6) 

8. 


- 


9. 


A 

Kurumpadar, Pd.-II Black-and-red 
ware (No. 5) 

10. 



Kurumpadar, Pd.-I Black-and-red 
ware (No. 2) 


Cultural Context 

Most of the copper hoards have been found outside 


habitation and as accidental discoveries during 
operations like ploughing, canal digging and levelling 
of agricultural land so the archaeological context and 


23 




















WW1T, 919 


age of copper hoard objects are still enigmatic. In 
the early fifties Lai carried out excavations at 
Hastinapur 34 , Bisauli and Rajpur Parsu villages in 
Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh at spots where copper 
hoards had reportedly been discovered earlier. While 
Lai did not find any new copper objects, he came 
across only weathered Ochre Colure Pottery. Lai’s 
supposition that the OOP was linked with the Copper 
hoard was more or less confirmed by the excavations 
at Saipai 35 . A hooked spearhead and harpoon of the 
copper hoards group were found here during the 
course of excavation in close association with an OCP 
deposit, the same site having earlier yielded a large 
copper hoard including an anthropomorphic figure. 
Thus the claim for the OCP will also be applicable 
to the copper hoards. 

As far as the dating of OCP is concerned, we have 
the thermoluminiscent dates of twelve sherds from 
Atranjikhera, Lai Gila, Jhinjhina and Nasirpur 
determined by the Archaeological Research 
Laboratory at Oxford. These dates place the OCP 
culture broadly in the first half of the 2 nd Millennium 
BC. The mean dates of the four sites are: 
Atranjikhera: 1688 BC; Lai Qila: 1880 BC; Jhinjhina: 
2070 BC; and Nasirpur: 1340 BC. In addition to this 
the OCP at Jodhpura has been placed between 2200- 
2500 BC on the basis of C-14 determinations 36 . 

Recently, D.V. Sharma 37 has found copper hoards 
objects associated with Late Harappan skeletal 
remains at Sanauli, Bagpat district of Uttar Pradesh. 
It is significant to mention that 28 copper 
Anthropomorph like small objects have been 
recovered from this site within a marked outlined 
area. (PI.12). Apart from that, two human torso 
shaped figures with rounded head arranged by disc¬ 
shaped steatite beads vertically and horizontally have 
recovered with human burial and pottery. An 
Anthropomorph of gold foil has also been found 
placed on the head of a human skeleton (PI.13). It 
is very interesting that the gold Anthropomorph is 
showing some similarities in the shape with the 
copper anthropomorphic figure under discussion. 
The excavated late Harappan site at Sanauli village 
is not far from Kheri Gujjar, Sonepat where the 


composite copper Anthropomorph was recovered and 
late Harappan potteries are also found (PI. 14). 

Mainly two claims have been put forward to identify 
the authors of the OCP and Copper Hoard culture 
namely: (i) the Refugee or late Harappans, and (ii) 
Indigenous people of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab. 
Though the extensive explorations in Punjab, Haryana, 
Rajasthan and the Doab and excavations of some 
sites have been carried out, the evidences do not 
substantiate any of the two views. The Copper and 
the OCP culture has shown some signs of influence 
of the Harappan culture. The Harappan contact with 
OCP/Copper Hoard culture is also reflected by the 
presence of an Anthropomorphic figure (?) in 
Harappan level at Lothal in phase-IV dated 
1900 BC 38 . 

Very interesting evidence has come out in the 
Paleobotanical study carried out by Prof. K.A. 
Choudhary. According to him 39 the OCP people of 
Atranjikhera cultivated barley ( Hordeum vulgare I—), 
rice ( Oryza sativa L.), gram ( Cicer arietinum L.) and 
Khesari ( Lathyrus sativus L.) and used chir (Pinus rox- 
burghii), sissoo ( Dlbergia sisoo), sal (Shorea rolusta) 
and babul ( Acacia nilotica L. Del). Out of the four 
crops two viz. barley and gram and among the wood 
chir came from the North-western part of Indo-Pak 
region. The barley of Atranjikhera, a six rowed hulled 
variety, is similar to that found at Harappa. 

The above assessment of the situation brings a clear 
impression that the authors of OCP and Copper 
Hoard culture were not only contemporary with the 
Harappans but also survived for a few centuries after. 

Summation 

The present representation of anthropomorphic figure 
is of high merit as regards iconographic as well as 
ideographic representation. This is certainly proved 
that the Anthropomorph is a cult object instead of a 
weapon of war. It also opens new avenues for 
discussion regarding the dating of the Brahmi letters 
and their association with Copper Hoard material. 
Stylistically the inscription is very much similar to the 


24 



Pragdhara, No. 17 


Harappan traditions as well as to that of black 
slipped and black-and-red ware potteries revealed 
from excavation at Orissa. The animal motif depicted 
on the Anthropomorph found from Kheri, the bull 
figures and Swastik shown on the shouldered axes 
from Kanpur and a fish motif engraved on the 
Anthropomorphic figure from Sheorajpur, Kanpur are 

References 

1. Sharma, Deo Prakash. Some new anthropo¬ 

morphic figures from Ganga Yamuna Doab, 
newly discovered Copper Hoard Weapons 
of south Asia (C. 2800 - 1500 BC) : pp. 52- 
54, Delhi. : Bharatiya Kala Prakashan. 

2. Shah, U.P. 1969. 'Vrsakapi in the Rigveda 1 , 

Journal of the Oriental Institute, Baroda 
(JOI) 8 (1): p. 56. 

3. Rig-Veda, I, 88, Vedic Sarhsodhana mandala 4 

Vol., Poona, 1933-46. (fr.) Griffith R.T.H, 2 
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4. Ibid., X, 67, 7. 

5. Ibid., I, 114, 5. 

6. Ibid., I, 121 11; 61, 7; VIII, 66, 10: x, 99, 6. 

7. Keith, A.B. Indian and Iranian Mythology 

(Mythology of all Races), Vol. VIO: p. 35. 

8. Sunakiya Atharva Veda, XII, 1,48. Atharva 

Veda, (tr.) Whitney W.D., Cambridge, 
1905. 

9. Rig-Veda, VIII, 77, 10. 

10. Taittiriya Samhita, VI, 2, 4,2 (ed.) Ananta 

Shastri, Aundh, 1945. 

11. Kapisthala Katha Samhita, XXXVIII, 5 (ed.) Dr. 

Raghu Vira 1932. Kapisthala Katha 
Samhita, XXXVIII. 5. Lahore. 

12. Matsya Purana, 248, 73. Anandasrama Sanskrit 

Series, Poona, 1907. 

13. Kapisthala Katha Samhita, VI, 7. 


similar to such figures which frequently occurr in pre- 
Harappan, Harappan, Chalcolithic and OOP culture. 
The literary evidences support that these motifs are 
worshipped from Pre-Vedic and Vedic period. These 
evidences indicate that the ideas and beliefs from 
pre-Harappan and Harappan culture continued in the 
Copper Hoard culture. 


14. Taittiriya Samhita, VII, 1,5, 1. 

15. Satapatha Brahmana, XIV, 1,2,11 (tr.) Eggeling J. 

(Sacred Book of the East), Oxford, 1882- 
1900. 

16. Agrawal, V.S. Yajha Varaha An Interpretation 

Purana, Vol. V, No. 2 : p. 225. 

17. Harivamsa, III, 34, 31. Also see Vayu Purana, VI, 

22; Matsya Purana, 247, 73 (ed.) Jinasena 
Suri, Poona, 1930. 

18. MahabharataVo\. VI, 63, 13 Bhandarkar Oriental 

Institute, Poona, 1927: p. 64. 

19. Visnudharmottara III, 79, 2-7. Gaekwad 

Orientaly Series. Baroda. 1958. 

20. Mathura Museum (Acc no.65,51). 

21. Agrawal, V.S. 'Gupta Yug mein Madhyadesa ka 

Kalatamaka Citrana', Nagri Pracarini Patrika 
(Vikramanka): p. 48. [Hindi], 

22. Sharma, D.V., A. Pradhan, V.N. Prabhakar, A.K. 

Bhargav, K.A. Kabui 2002. 'A Report on 
Excavation at Madarpur: A Copper Hoard 
Site', Puratattva 32: pp. 33-42. 

23. Agrawal, R.C. 1984. 'A unique copper 

Anthropomorph from Sheorajpur, Kanpur', 
Bulletin of Museums and Archaeology in 
U.P. 33-34: pp. 9-10. 

24. Kumar, Krishna 2001. 'A Pair of Protohistoric 

Copper Axes from Kanpur District and their 
Symbols', Pragdhara, No. 11: pp. 131-134. 


25 


wmrr, zfo-w 


25. Indian Archaeological A Review-1990-91: p. 92. 

26. Srivastava, A. L. 1989. Bhartiya Kala Patrika: 

p.89 [Hindi]. 

27. Gaur, R.C. 1995. Excavation at Lai Oila - A 

Habitational Site, Jaipur : p.25, Fig. 43-44. 

28. Ibid. : pp. 151-53. 

29. Indian Archaeology 1990-91 : A Review: p. 108. 

30. Majumdar, R.C. 1965. Vedic Age: pp. 367-68. 

Bombay. 

31. Rao, S.R. 1985. Lothal A Harappan Port Town- 

1955-62, Vol. II, Memoir No. 78, 
Archaeological Survey of India, PI. CLVII (B) 
and CLX (F). 

32. Pradeep K. Vehra 2003. 'Excavation at 

Kumarsenga and Kurumpadar. The iron age 
settlement in the middle Mahanadi Valley 
Orissa: Result of first seasons work', 


Pragdhara, No. 13: pp. 87-103. 

33. Ibid.: pp. 87-103. 

34. Lai, B.B. 1954-55. 'Excavations at Hastinapur 

and other Explorations', Ancient India 
10 - 11 . 

35. Lai, B.B.1971 -72. 'A note on the Excavation at 

Saipai', Puratattva 5. 

36. Agrawal, D.P., Shiela Kusumgar 1974. Pre¬ 

historic chronology and carbon dating in 
India. 

37. Excavations at Sinauli Dist. Bagpat, U.P. 
(Personal communication). 

38. Rao, S.R. 1985. Lothal A Harappan Port Town- 

1955-62, Vol. II, Memoir No. 78, 
Archaeological Survey of India. 

39. Chowdhury, A.K. 1977. Ancient Agriculture and 

Forestry in Ancient India. Bombay. 


Dr. Sanjay Kumar Manjul 
Dr. Arvin Manjul 

Archaeological Survey of India 
Janpath, New Delhi, INDIA 


26